Vue Test Utils Settimeout

According to the specification , the default export should be a Vue. If you are a total beginner to Vue and reactive UI libraries and want a good tutorial, we recommend you take a look at the Udemy Course - Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guidelaunch. js Dec 20, 2017 | Aurélien Bottazini Unit testing is a skill on its own, and it may not be your priority while you are learning a new language or a new framework. We can then query the wrapper to make assertions about the rendered HTML. 日用品 ゴミ袋・ゴミ箱・清掃用品 ゴミ袋 【業務用パック】オリジナルゴミ袋 半透明 90l 1箱(600枚). It provides methods for unit testing Vue components. Vue is a UI library — so naturally, testing Vue components usually involves asserts whether the UI correctly reflects the state of the application, or in this case, the data supplied from. Testing using @vue/test-utils and Jest The only pre-requisite is having node and npm installed, although I will be using VSCode as my editor. Getting to Know Vue. Demo or JSFiddle Installation # npm npm install vue-loading-overlay # Yarn yarn add vue-loading-overlay. Edd Yerburgh from the Vue core team has develop vue-test-utils, a package with a set of utils that makes testing Vue components a breeze. This means we need to avoid calls to any dependency, so we'll need to mock them. To test that a prop is called when the element is clicked, you need a way to simulate a click event on the button element. js component options object. Mocha & Chai APIs, including expect, should, and assert, are made available in global scope. You can do this with the Vue Test Utils trigger method. What's New in Maven. This can be very confusing if you aren't aware of the fact! So when you want to stub Vue Router properties, you need to avoid installing Vue Router on the base Vue constructor. Vue Testing Library is a very light-weight solution for testing Vue components. When testing these components, you will need to provide vue-test-utils with a mock object. js: Learn to Build Single Page Applications in Vue from Scratch. vue-test-utils的常用API. Build bullet-proof apps with Testing: Make use of Vue's official test utility library, vue-test-utils, to build meaningful tests for a daily weather app that interacts with a third party API. vue-test-utilsで単体テストを書く際に、Vuetifyのコンポーネントが存在するかfindしたい場合に、コンポーネントクラスが指定できなかったのでメモ。前提ライブラリのバージョンは以下で確. Jest is a full-featured test runner that requires almost no configuration. Second, there were bugs that were difficult to solve, such as watchers running when they should not. With Webpack configured and Vue Components working, it’s finally time for some TDD! I’ve been following this guide on how to use Mocha and Vue Test Utils. In this video I discuss how you can use Vue. Everything comes down to test what that method do, and just that. Vue Test Utils is the official library for unit testing Vue components. Definition and Usage. Vue CLI 3 was released, and Vue Test Utils, the official Vue. You can use Jest in conjunction with Vue Test Utils, which allows you to mount and query Vue components. 크롬 개발자 도구를 열고 Console 패널을 확인하면 아래와 같은 결과가 나옵니다. 参考にさせて頂いたページ 公式ドキュメント(日本語版) vue-test-utils | Vue Test Utils 公式リポジトリ vue-test-utils GitHub - vuejs/vue-test-utils: 🔬 Utilities for testing Vue components vue-tes…. It is going to take time to learn them both. You’ll enjoy author Edd Yerburgh’s engaging style and fun real-world examples as you learn to use the Jest framework to run tests for a Hacker News application built with Vue, Vuex, and Vue Router. js Meetups, vue-test-utils beta released, Vue Apollo GraphQL mutation examples, tutorials, plugins & more about Vue. js is a hackable charting lib for traders. lobo_tuerto's notes. Get the latest Nuxt news to your inbox, curated by the core team and contributors. You are testing a component that does some time consuming operations in a lifecycle methods you would like to avoid executing in your computed unit test. js vue-resource どうやってスレッドコードを単体テストするべきですか? プライベートメソッド、フィールド、または内部クラスを持つプライベート関数またはクラスをテストするにはどうすればよいですか?. setTimeout() schedules a script to be run after a minimum threshold in ms has elapsed. Author Callum Macrae shows you how to use the most useful libraries in the Vue ecosystem, such as vue-router for routing, vuex for state management, and vue-test-utils for testing. We also have the official Vue Test Utils which provides more detailed guidance for custom setups. However, meddling with string concatenation is annoying and error-prone. As mentioned earlier, we will also use vue-test-utils, the official unit testing utility library for Vue. Vue guide’s to unit test show us exactly that: Vue. js environment, we'll also be using vue-test-utils to make it easy when interfacing with native Vue elements. This can be helpful if you only need to wait for one tick of the event loop (in the case of mocked API calls with promises that resolve immediately). Service Test Utils module holds utilities used by service tests that may have dependencies on the core runtime. 0 * (c) 2014-2017 Evan You * Released under the MIT License. The main return value of a Vue component is the rendered output. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Mounted components are returned inside a Wrapper , which exposes many convenience methods for manipulating, traversing and querying the underlying Vue component instance. テストをシンプルにするために、 vue-test-utils は DOM の更新を同期的に適用します。 しかし、コールバックや Promise のようなコンポーネントの非同期動作をテストする場合、いくつかのテクニックを知っておく必要があります。. 1、树与数组转换对应的目录如下图所示:. This opinionated guide details the steps I take to start with a solid foundation for a new Vue. The setTimeout() method calls a function or evaluates an expression after a specified number of milliseconds. Being a practitioner of test driven development, I was happy to see the author include tips and his opinions on how to test-drive the development process. Vueで子から親へのコールバック形式による値受け渡し (TypeScript) Vueで親から子へ値(変数)の受け渡し(TypeScript) Webpackのコンパイル時のバンドルサイズを小さくする(Webpack4, Vue) Vue * TypeScriptでフロントエンドのテスト(Karma, vue-test-util) 3月 (7) 2月 (5). With Testing Vue. Passing a value:. You'll enjoy author Edd Yerburgh's engaging style and fun real-world examples as you learn to use the Jest framework to run tests for a Hacker News application built with Vue, Vuex, and Vue Router. Switch branch/tag. test:unit; So if I want to run any of these I simply type npm run serve or the name of the script you want to run. Enzyme makes it easy to assert, manipulate your components’ output. /test-utils), add the folder containing the file to the Jest moduleDirectories option. Jest and Vue Test Utils are two really great libraries that can do so many things. Vue Server Renderer Vue-server-renderer facilitates building of isomorphic or universal JavaScript applications which runs both on server and client side where majority of the application code is shared and reused. To learn about the other things that Jest can test, see Using Matchers. This can be useful if you have a unit test that mocks API calls and you need to wait for your mock promises to all resolve. You can do so by invoking your function locally, using the serverless invoke local command. They just have some tradeoffs between the configuration upfront and the support for SFCs (single file components). Right now, most of the tests in MessageList. Taobao H5, Zhihu H5, etc. Vue guide's to unit test show us exactly that: Stubbing API responses Vue Resource Interceptors allow us to add a interceptor with the response we need:. rerendered HTML or emitted events) for a given input (i. You can use a. If you are interested in manually setting up unit tests for *. com/ * * Copyright 2011, John Resig * Dual licensed under the MIT or GPL Version 2 licenses. This can be helpful if you only need to wait for one tick of the event loop (in the case of mocked API calls with promises that resolve immediately). @@ -5,9 +5,9 @@ "eslint": "eslint --max-warnings 0 --ext. js wraps an observed Array’s mutation methods so they will also trigger View updates. 0 beta version shipped Monday, as well as an official guide to help you get started with standard tips, using test runners, and testing components which use Vuex (centralized state management for Vue). Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. So use @vue/test. Vue Test Utils Vue Test Utils is the official unit testing utility library for Vue. When called right from the test function, they implicitly obtain the test controller. Let you use Vue. nuxtignore file to let Nuxt. Welcome to the Vue. In the last article, we were testing against an App component which rendered a simple todo list. vue-test-utils的常用API. js? > What if you could master the entire framework - with solid foundations - in less time without beating your head against a wall?. In Vue Test Utils, every wrapper has a trigger method that dispatches a synthetic event on the wrapped element. 综上所述,最终我确定下来的方案是使用成熟好用的测试工具库 --- vue-test-utils 其前身是 avoriaz,avoriaz 也是一个不错的包,但其 README 中有说明,当 vue-test-utils 正式发布的时候, 它将会被废弃。 vue-test-utils 能极大地简化 Vue. It is a native Promise or a jQuery. js Unit Testing with Jest. It provides methods for unit testing Vue components. npm i @vue/test-utils vue-jest babel-jest -D. I'm new to vue. Treeshaking (a-la-carte) Smaller bundle sizes. Looking on the net, I found a solution to delay the execution of some code in JS script, by using the setTimeout() function. js now has an official unit testing library for testing Vue applications. In this course, you'll learn everything you need to know to write proper unit tests for your Vue components. /test-utils), add the folder containing the file to the Jest moduleDirectories option. js component options object. vue-test-utils provides a simple way to mock global objects attached to Vue. # Testing Mutations. Hi all, i am trying to use the Vue Test Utils libraries for testing some Vue. Warning messages thrown about child components created with vue. Before we learn how to test our vue. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. To test Vue. If you are interested in manually setting up unit tests for *. Vladimir has 4 jobs listed on their profile. 테스트 실행이 굉장히 빠릅니다. With vue-test-utils hitting the scene and making testing a breeze, I've been exploring the best way to structure my Vue apps, and how to test large applications driven primary by a complex Vuex…. js we can respond to the dom events by adding event handler methods to the element by using v-on directive or @ syntax. To simplify testing, Vue Test Utils applies DOM updates synchronously. What should we test in methods? That's a question that we had when we started doing unit tests. Demo of how to unit test vue-hackernews-2. elepy:elepy-tests. After we. As we're inside of the Vue. Enzyme makes it easy to assert, manipulate your components’ output. Edd Yerburgh from the Vue core team has develop vue-test-utils, a package with a set of utils that makes testing Vue components a breeze. 参考 Vue cli3 与 karma. Vue-test-utils. @@ -3,7 +3,9 @@ import { normalizeHeaders } from '. Tip: 1000 ms = 1 second. Note: This page assumes you're using Jest as a test runner. However, there is a much better way. stubs is used by default. 从上面的代码可以看出, vue-test-utils工具将该测试用例的代码量减少了一半, 如果是更复杂的测试用例, 那么代码量的减少将更为突出. 这个 cli-ui 暴露一个 API,允许增强项目的配置和任务,也可以分享数据和在进程间进行通信。 # UI 文件 在每个安装好的 vue-cli 插件里,cli-ui 都会尝试从其插件的根目录加载一个可选的 ui. First, we are going to create a new vue project by using Vue CLI. Build bullet-proof apps with Testing: Make use of Vue’s official test utility library, vue-test-utils, to build meaningful tests for a daily weather app that interacts with a third party API. We will be using vue-test-utils as the testing utility library for Vue. This allows your project to stay up-to-date for the long run. Functions like setInterval, setTimeout, setImmediate. Color:Songbird Essentials. It provides data-reactive components with a simple and flexible API. A brief summary of the changes that happened over the last months in the official vue-test-utils, so you can migrate safely to v1. Before effectively doing so, we first check if it was not already called before (using the timer reference to the previous call) and if it was, we cancel this previous call (clearTimeout) before effectively delaying our target. 0 average based on 1 product rating. Nuxt should seamlessly let developers run tests with runners like jest or ava while using Vue-test-utils as well as modern ES features (import statements). Build bullet-proof apps with Testing: Make use of Vue's official test utility library, vue-test-utils, to build meaningful tests for a daily weather app that interacts with a third party API. A concise and practical guide to unit test your Vue. Hi, I have tried to use the vue-test-utils (Jest) with Flexgrid for Vue 2, and it does not seem to work as expected. js templates. js is moving to use scoped packages so vue-test-utils is deprecated. with-sockets #6586 Fix cannot read property 'app' of undefined on nuxt build 💖 Thanks to @PedroD; Stephan Besser. With Webpack configured and Vue Components working, it's finally time for some TDD! I've been following this guide on how to use Mocha and Vue Test Utils. js ignore layout, page, store and middleware files in your project’s root directory (rootDir) during the build phase. Vue Testing Library is a very light-weight solution for testing Vue components. Test unitarios usando JEST y vue-test-utils. So use @vue/test. Vue Test Utils is the official test library for Vue. Vue Test Utils can automatically do this for you with a feature called shallowMount. 이처럼 인스턴스 안에는 미리 정의되어 있는 속성과 메서드(API)들이 있기 때문에 이 기능들을 이용하여 빠르게 화면을 개발해나갈 수 있습니다. Vue CLI offers pre-configured unit testing and e2e testing setups. vue-test-utils. Instead, you can use the @click event to handle the route change. The main return value of a Vue component is the rendered output. TTEC is seeking a Sr. There are many to choose from, but Jest and Mocha-Webpack are both equally good. And add an npm build script:. No Need to Eject. mount method. To simplify usage, vue-test-utils applies all updates synchronously so you don't need to use Vue. Here in this tutorial, we are going to explain how to use setTimeOut function Vue. npm i jest -D Next, we install Vue Test Utils and other dependencies. js - Vue Test Utils. If you are a total beginner to Vue and reactive UI libraries and want a good tutorial, we recommend you take a look at the Udemy Course - Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guidelaunch. js - The Progressive JavaScript Framework. Read more master. vue-test-utils的常用API. Vue is a UI library — so naturally, testing Vue components usually involves asserts whether the UI correctly reflects the state of the application, or in this case, the data supplied from. You can see here the whole API and typings. js Developers Issue #33 - Masonry Grid PWA With Vue, Q&A with Evan You, Unit Tests with Vue Test Utils and more By Anthony Gore • Issue #33 • View online To keep your product relevant in the market, you should be building Progressive Web Apps (PWAs). js Single File Components with ava Posted on 22 October 2017 , by Markus Oberlehner , in Development , tagged Front-End testing , JavaScript , TDD , Vue and unit tests In today's article, we will explore how to unit test Vue. It covers the vue-test-utils API, as well as best practises for testing components. With Webpack configured and Vue Components working, it’s finally time for some TDD! I’ve been following this guide on how to use Mocha and Vue Test Utils. js component for full screen loading indicator:point_right: Version 2 documentation is available on v2. vue作为目前主流前端框架之一,很多各种安装依赖。 为了提高效率,所以今天有时间就将一般会用到关于vue的安装依赖总结一下,以下安装的环境为:windows 64位。. As a second-generation reactive UI framework, Vue was designed from the ground up with developer usability in mind. All examples here use Jest and vue-test-utils # Simple tests. Recreating dynamic components is normally useful behavior, but in this case, we'd really like those tab component instances to be cached once they're created for the first time. If you are a total beginner to Vue and reactive UI libraries and want a good tutorial, we recommend you take a look at the Udemy Course - Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guidelaunch. js Expert Role. We can use the stubs mounting option, described in the vue-test-utils. js, который задаёт пользователю несколько вопросов при установке плагина (через CLI или UI). Nuxt JS Newsletter. Such apps often include games, media players, anything that is CPU/battery intensive, and so on. You can see here the whole API and typings. Remember i mentioned that. I'll tidy it up and post it here tomorrow. Example component. June 24, 2019. It is going to take time to learn them both. Stubs to use in components. Javascript, ES6, Advanced Vue. Each test should only test one feature or unique functionality. Mutations are very straightforward to test, because they are just functions that completely rely on their arguments. Before effectively doing so, we first check if it was not already called before (using the timer reference to the previous call) and if it was, we cancel this previous call (clearTimeout) before effectively delaying our target. 前提 webpackは使わない。 node. It’s testing framework-agnostic so you could use it in mocha or any other tool of your choice. With Testing Vue. Vue Test Utils 是 Vue. Vue Test Utils is the official library for unit testing Vue components. The vue-test-utils library provides us helper methods by using that we can mount and interact with the Vue components easily. I'm using the latest version of @vue/test-utils which is 1. They just have some tradeoffs between the configuration upfront and the support for SFCs (single file components). js + JavaScript 環境に TypeScript を導入しようとしたときの話です。. However, there is a much better way. {"version":3,"file":"popper-utils. You may use Chrome or Electron test runner to get the correct inline messages. Warning messages thrown about child components created with vue. 0, Ruby , Android , Java , J2EE ,Open Source Frameworks ] Subscribe My channel http. What, why, and how of unit testing Vue components. vue utils util unit test promises e2e cli unit-testing mocha vue. A cultura de testes poderia mudar a vida de muitas empresas e devs que vivem apagando fogo /me William Correa @wilcorrea. Getting to Know Vue. js will fail, so let's remove them all (or comment them out), and focus on slot testing. Since Jest is not an e2e test framework we can skip the NightWatch part. /utils/logger'; const { performance, XMLHttpRequest } = window; class XhrLoader. A weekly newsletter for front-end developers with a specific focus on tools. Client functions need access to the test controller to be executed. In the time I have been delving into Vue. js components, and more specifically Vue. To simplify usage, vue-test-utils applies all updates synchronously so you don't need to use Vue. Vue Test Utils is the official unit testing utility library for Vue. You can use mocked imports with the rich Mock Functions API to spy on function calls with readable test syntax. Tip: The function is only executed once. TradingVue. Also, because Vue unit tests don't handle asynchrony for us, we have to know to manually call Vue. Keep Vue Test Utils locked at beta. js 的核心是一个允许采用简洁的. A nice collection of often useful examples done in Vue. Warning messages thrown about child components created with vue. This mocks out setTimeout and other timer functions with mock functions. So for this. @@ -3,7 +3,9 @@ import { normalizeHeaders } from '. find() works fine. Project Layout. Vue Test Utils + Nexmo SDK + Swagger + TDD in Node. If you find Google Analytics needs more personality and customizability, build your own web analytics dashboard with Node. From what I've read about state management and vuex, whenever I want to update something on the DOM I need to just update my store, correct? So say that I am writing an app where a user would run a search, once the search is run, I cannot just go into the DOM to update my table with the results right?. Vue is a UI library — so naturally, testing Vue components usually involves asserts whether the UI correctly reflects the state of the application, or in this case, the data supplied from. Testing Vue. func (Function): The function to debounce. Create an component, and add the following code. The `jest` object is automatically in scope within every test file. Author Callum Macrae shows you how to use the most useful libraries in the Vue ecosystem, such as vue-router for routing, vuex for state management, and vue-test-utils for testing. debounce and _. Promise when you use jQuery. This is crucial for determining the actual results from a component's behavior. One should apply to be a Vue. The source code for the test described on this page can be found here. vuejs-elementUI-treeTable. @@ -5,9 +5,9 @@ "eslint": "eslint --max-warnings 0 --ext. Recreating dynamic components is normally useful behavior, but in this case, we’d really like those tab component instances to be cached once they’re created for the first time. To simplify testing, Vue Test Utils applies DOM updates synchronously. A weekly newsletter for front-end developers with a specific focus on tools. Explicit per-test setup is far easier for other readers of the test to reason about the environment the test will run in. ", "eslint-fix": "eslint --max-warnings 0 --ext. The following are code examples for showing how to use base64. Ideally we don't want to make calls to external services in our unit tests, especially when it's from a component that is not the main focus of the current test. Learn how to test your Vue. 这篇文章主要介绍了详解在vue-test-utils中mock全局对象,小编觉得挺不错的,现在分享给大家,也给大家做个参考。一起跟随小编过来看看吧. js components. Async Vue Test Utils Example. js file which asks the user a few questions when installing the plugin (with the CLI or the UI). This will make all the. @@ -3,7 +3,9 @@ import { normalizeHeaders } from '. js and in the browser, making asynchronous testing simple and fun. You are testing a component that does some time consuming operations in a lifecycle methods you would like to avoid executing in your computed unit test. 前提 webpackは使わない。 node. JS components but I am facing issues when running the tests - following e. js files in the test-utils directory importable without. mock() at the top of the test file. The main return value of a Vue component is the rendered output. Arc has top senior Vue Test Utils developers, consultants, software engineers, and experts available for hire. To make your custom test file accessible in your Jest test files without using relative imports (. Mutations are very straightforward to test, because they are just functions that completely rely on their arguments. js公式のテストライブラリとして誕生したvue-test-utilsを触ってみようと思います。 ちなみに、私のテスト歴は、 CasperJsでちょっとE2Eテスト書いてみたことある; vue-test-utilsの前身であるavoriazちょっとだけ触ってみた. Vue Testing Library is a very light-weight solution for testing Vue components. Notice that in the test above, we expected that the text content of the h1 tag under the hello class would be equal to welcome to Your Vue. js will fail, so let's remove them all (or comment them out), and focus on slot testing. Note: This page assumes you're using Jest as a test runner. jsを入れている。 npmを使用出来る ※ webpackを使わない理由は対象をrails5だけに絞っていないからです。 必要なものをinstall npm install --save-dev jest @vue/test-utils vue-jest babel-jest…. With vue-test-utils hitting the scene and making testing a breeze, I’ve been exploring the best way to structure my Vue apps, and how to test large applications driven primary by a complex Vuex…. Vue CLI has built-in options for unit testing with Jest or Mocha that works out of the box. Let’s use this example test to introduce the basics of mocha, mocha-webpack, and vue-test-utils. The scripts block above is what a typical VueJS project will look when you create it using the Vue CLI and selecting both Unit & End to End testing. js vue-resource Wie soll ich den Thread-Code testen? Wie teste ich eine private Funktion oder eine Klasse mit privaten Methoden, Feldern oder inneren Klassen?. * Service for vue resouce and method. js now has an official unit testing library for testing Vue applications. Writing Vue Tests using Avorias. js component for full screen loading indicator:point_right: Version 2 documentation is available on v2. 在刚过去的 VueConf 2019 上,Vue 公布了 3. /** * @file create-logger. js 테스트 환경을 만들어 볼 것입니다. The first step is of course to run npm install a few more times:. Example component. props or user input). We also recommend taking a look at another tutorial on Quasar Framework: Cross-Platform VueJS Vuex & Firebase Apps launch later on. More than 1 year has passed since last update. #マウンティングコンポーネント. In your vue-cli plugin, you may already have a prompts. 使用vue test utils做单元测试 vue概述 在官方文档中,有一句话对Vue的定位说的很明确:Vue. js vs ReactJS performance metrics are similar for speed, but faster development leans toward Vue. Vue-test-utils. js documentation to find more about mocking up data. Mocking file dependencies. vue and is a product item in an eCommerce app. vue-test-utils and Vuex Posted 1 year ago by D9705996 I am working on a my first larger application with Laravel and Vue and I am trying to figure out how to integrate Vuex into vue-test-utils using mocha-webpack and expect. From: =?big5?B?pdEgV2luZG93cyBJbnRlcm5ldCBFeHBsb3JlciA4IMB4pnM=?= Subject: =?big5?B?tsCk7KzurOOoc6azpqihRyC4Vq9iwHWofat+utggRE5BpMCkbL96v+8gp9akU6zZ?= =?big5?B. As we're inside of the Vue. vue' @Component export default class YourComponent extends Vue { @Ref() readonly anotherComponent!:. In support of those goal, a few key skills are required to make the most of using those tools:. js, using vue-test-utils helpers and the Jest testing framework. Using call and passing a custom context can be useful. In this article, we will examine a solution that makes it possible to overcome this limitation. 스냅샷을 찍어서 비교가 가능합니다. Frontend testing standards and style guidelines. Posted 10 November 2017, 12:43 am EST. Using call and passing a custom context can be useful. Service Test Utils module holds utilities used by service tests that may have dependencies on the core runtime. Now we also need to choose a test runner. 29 October 2019 A hackable charting lib for traders. Here in this tutorial, we are going to explain how to use setTimeOut function Vue. As simple as this method is, there is a simpler method to write tests in Vue. We also recommend taking a look at another tutorial on Quasar Framework: Cross-Platform VueJS Vuex & Firebase Apps launch later on. 至此我才第一次接触到测试代码,我们项目使用的测试工具是jest,与vue官方出的单元测试工具库vue-test-utils配合使用。第一次接触测试代码,开始的时候还是一脸懵逼,有种学习一门新语言的赶脚。. Dive into vue-test-utils ~~Road of 1. Edd Yerburgh from the Vue core team has develop vue-test-utils, a package with a set of utils that makes testing Vue components a breeze. Vue Test Utils (https: An inline animation function uses setTimeout methods, which takes tickfunction as its first argument and it redraws the text, character by character. Such apps often include games, media players, anything that is CPU/battery intensive, and so on. Writing Vue Tests using Avorias. This section describes the utility objects that the DevExtreme data layer provides. el' - no local version-control tools needed. js batches view updates and executes them all asynchronously. @@ -3,7 +3,9 @@ import { normalizeHeaders } from '. vue-test-utils的常用API. Here's the method, the code that must be executed after pause must be inside a function that will be accessed with setTimeout():.